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 The vocalic system

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AuteurMessage
newstyle1236



Messages : 12
Date d'inscription : 24/11/2009

MessageSujet: The vocalic system   Mer 25 Nov - 20:03

[b]1.1 The definition of vowels[/b]
A vowel is a sound which is pronounced without any oral obstruction. That is to say, vowels are produced without any articulators touching or even coming together ;it is always difficult to figure out just what is happening. To sum it up , there are two points: None of the articulators come close together.
­the passage of the airstream is relatively unobstructed.
[b]1.2 The distinction between vowels and consonants[/b][b]:[/b]
Vowels can be distinguished from consonant according to these criteria ׃
[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]Vowels are produced with no air obstruction; whereas, in the production of consonants, there is always an air obstruction. -vowels are usually voiced and serves as nucleus for the syllable; whereas, consonants can be either voiced or voiceless and they are –syllabic, except nasals and liquids which can be +syllabic.
[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]Vowels are classified according to the tongue position and lip rounding. Whereas, consonants are classified according to the place of articulation and manner of articulation and voicing.
Generally, vowels are classified according to three questions:
[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]How high is the tongue?
[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]what parts of the tongue is involved ;that is to same what part is raised or lowered
[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]What is the position of the lips?
Exception: the French phoneticians tend to classify vowels in much the same way as the consonants, according to manner of articulation and place of articulation.
[b]2.The English vocalic system[/b]
To produce vowels different parts of the tongue may be raised or lowered; the lips may be spread or pursed (rounded)
[b]Tongue[/b][b] position:[/b]
The tongue takes four positions: front, back; high, low:
[font:d531=Wingdings]Ø
[/font]/u:/ and /i:/ In the production of these two vowels, the
tongue is very high in the mouth; but in/i: / it is the front part that is
raised and in /u: / the back part of the tongue.
Examples
: heat /hi:t/
hoot /hu:t/.
Both
of these vowels can be specified as[ +high] but /u:/ is [+back]
,whereas / i:/ is [-back]
[font:d531=Wingdings]Ø
[/font]/i/ and /u/ these two vowels
are similar to those in heat and hoot respectively, but the tongue is a little lower in the mouth.
Examples:
bit /bit/ put /put/
[font:d531=Wingdings]Ø
[/font]/æ/ to produce these vowels the back of the tongue is lower in the mouth : a +low +back
This vowel is produced with the front part of the tongue lowered. It is +low like the vowel in hot but
distinguished from it by being –back
Examples
bat /bæt/ hot
[font:d531=Wingdings]Ø
[/font]/e /and /o/ these vowels are
produced when the tongue raised to mid
position between high and low vowels ;they are mid vowels [-high, –low].
/e/ is [–back] whereas the vowel o is [+ back]
Examples bait
boat

[font:d531=Wingdings]Ø
[/font] /ε/and / [img(12px,12px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.gif[/img]/ the tongue position in these vowels is
slightly lower than in bait and boat.


Example:
bet and bore


[font:d531=Wingdings]Ø
[/font]Λ to produce this vowel, the
tongue is neither high nor low ; front nor back. This vowel and the slightly different
vowel/ә/ are mid , central vowels
specified as [-high-low;- back- front]



Example: again
but
[b]Lip rounding [/b]

[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]All back vowels are rounded,
except / [img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg[/img]:/ the only back unrounded vowel
in English.


[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]There is no front rounded
vowel in English.


[font:d531=Wingdings]§
[/font]Mid central vowels are unrounded.





[b]Diphthongs[/b] :
are a sequence of a vowel + glide, accordindg to Fromkin’s Introduction to
Language and Schane’s Generative
Phonology.

/aj/
Produced with the vowel /[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg[/img] :/ like in father and the glide j write

/aw/ Produced with the vowel /[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg[/img] :/ like in
father and the glide w brown

Produced with the vowel / [img(12px,12px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.gif[/img]/ like in bore and the glide j boy

[b]Tense and lax [/b]
The lax
vowels are produced with slightly lower tongue position than their tense
counterparts. Tense vowels are produced
with greater muscular tension ; they are maintained longer and the articulatory organs deviate from the rest
position in their formation.


The tense
vowels are sometimes diphthongized by some speakers of English. For much
speakers , the tense front vowels are followed by a short j glide , and tense
back vowels by a short w glide.
[center]

[table:d531 class="MsoNormalTable" style="border: medium none ; border-collapse: collapse;" border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border: 1.5pt solid black; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
Tense

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
Example

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
Lax

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
Example

[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/i:/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
beat
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/i/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
bit
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/e/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
bait
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/ε/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
bet
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/u:/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
boot
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/u/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
put
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/o/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
boat
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
/
[img(12px,12px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.gif[/img]:/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 115.15pt;" valign="top" width="154"]
bought
[/td] [/tr][/table]
[/center]

[b]3. The Arabic vocalic system :[/b]
Vowels in Arabic are classified in much the same way as the English vowels. Therefore, they can be classified according to the tongue position and lips shape.
-
/i/ is simlar to the English /i/. It
is short high front oral vowel. Example : /niza:r/ it can be a
little lower and thus similar to the french /e/ after the so called high
consonants : / ð ,q,x,š /


-
/i:/ is the long counterparts of the short vowel/i/


It is
subject to the same changes that occurs in the case of the short one ;
that is to say, it is realized as /e:/ or /i:/


/ sƏre:run/ / ? әmi:run


- /u/
is specified as a short, high back round oral vowel. It is realized the same
with no changes whatsoever after the high consonants


Ex : / nuŠira/
/ ضuriba/


-
/u:/ is the long counterpart of the short vowel /u/


-
Ex : /yasmu:/


-
/ a/ short low front oral vowel. It occurs before these
consonants


[b,t
,z ;s ;q…] ex:/ kataba/


/a :
/ is the long counterpart /ka :tibun/


-/[img(14px,15px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image005.jpg[/img]/short low oral vowel ; it occurs before
high consonants.


[ q,x… ] or after /r/


/[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image006.jpg[/img]:/ is the long counterpart of /[img(14px,15px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image007.jpg[/img] /


/q[img(14px,15px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image005.jpg[/img]/ /q[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg[/img]:serun/


[b]4. The[/b] [b]french vocalic system[/b]

Different languages have different ways of classifying their sounds into two sets: vowels and consonants. The French phoneticians
tend to use the same criteria to distinguish between sounds. Moreover, they claim that the French vocalic system has 16 vowels which are:



[center]

[table:d531 class="MsoTableGrid" style="border: medium none ; width: 452.85pt; border-collapse: collapse;" width="604" border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; height: 16.15pt;"]

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 2.25pt 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; width: 83.95pt; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
Vowels
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: windowtext windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 2.25pt 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; width: 285.45pt; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Examples
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 17.4pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 17.4pt;"]
[b]1[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="112"]
/i/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="381"]
Mie – pie – lyre…
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]2[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/e/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Cacher – général – chez - …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]3[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/[img(20px,21px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image008.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Merci – lait – neige –jouet –
fête …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 17.4pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 17.4pt;"]
[b]4[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="112"]
/[img(16px,25px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image009.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="381"]
Matin – plein – main …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]5[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/a/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Plat – patte – faculté …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]6[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/y/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Une – rue – vendu …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 17.4pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 17.4pt;"]
[b]7[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="112"]
/ø/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="381"]
Peu – deux …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]8[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/[img(18px,23px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image010.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Le –
premier …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]9[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/[img(20px,16px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image011.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Peur- soeur
– meuble…
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]10[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/[img(19px,24px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image012.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Un – lundi
– brun – parfum
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 17.4pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 17.4pt;"]
[b]11[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="112"]
/u/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="381"]
Genou –
vous - roue …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]12[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/o/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Lot – rose
– gauche – seau – tôt …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]13[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/[img(7px,9px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image013.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Mort –
donner …
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 17.4pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 17.4pt;"]
[b]14[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="112"]
/[img(12px,17px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image015.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 17.4pt;" width="381"]
Bon – ombre

[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 16.15pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 16.15pt;"]
[b]15[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="112"]
/[img(14px,15px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image007.jpg[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 16.15pt;" width="381"]
Bas – châtain -
ambulance
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 9.2pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; background: rgb(224, 224, 224) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; height: 9.2pt;"]
[b]16[/b]
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 83.95pt; height: 9.2pt;" width="112"]
/[img(14px,17px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image017.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color windowtext windowtext -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 2.25pt 2.25pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 285.45pt; height: 9.2pt;" width="381"]
Ange- sans
– range…
[/td] [/tr][/table]

[/center]






These vowels are arranged by using two dimensions:


[font:d531=Symbol]·
[/font]The manner of articulation.


[font:d531=Symbol]·
[/font]The place of articulation.


[b]4.1 The
manner of articulation:[/b]

The manner of
articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaws, and other speech organs are
involved in producing a sound. Often, the concept is only used for the
production of [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonant][color:d531=#000000]consonants[/color][/url]. But, in French, this concept is
used also to arrange vowels. According to this, there are two kinds of
oppositions:





[font:d531=Symbol]·
[/font]The oral vowels are produced when the
velum is raised so as to block the nasal cavity. Hence, the air passes only through the oral cavity. For
example: /u/ /a/ /[img(14px,15px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image007.jpg[/img]/

















[img(208px,248px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image021.gif[/img]


[font:d531=Symbol]·
[/font]In the
production of the nasal vowels, the air passes not only through the oral cavity
but also through the nasal cavity.


In French, there are four vowels namely: /[img(14px,17px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image017.gif[/img]/ /[img(19px,24px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image012.gif[/img]/ /[img(12px,17px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image015.gif[/img]/ /[img(16px,25px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image009.gif[/img]/


[b]4.1.2 Rounded
Vs Unrounded:[/b]


When
pronouncing a rounded vowel, the lips form a circular opening, while in
unrounded vowels the lips are neutral or
relaxed.


Let's
consider the following sequences :


a-
/u/ /ø/ /[img(18px,23px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image010.gif[/img]/ /[img(20px,16px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image011.gif[/img]/ /o/ /[img(7px,9px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image013.gif[/img]/ /[img(9px,8px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image022.gif[/img]/


b-
/i / / e/ /[img(20px,21px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image008.gif[/img]/ /a/


In the first
sequence of sounds, vowels are rounded. But, in the second, there is no
rounding of the lips. Thus, they are unrounded.


[b]4.2 Place of
articulation[/b]


The second
dimension is Place of articulation. It relates to the position of tongue.
Therefore, we can classify vowels by using tow oppositions:


[b]4.2.1
Anterior Vs Posterior:[/b]


An anterior
vowel involves the rising of the tongue towards the front of mouth. Examples: /i /
/a/ /y/ ….


A posterior vowel is produced when the tongue is
retracted to the back like
/[img(12px,17px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image015.gif[/img]/ /u/ /[img(14px,15px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image007.jpg[/img]/


[b]4.2.2 Open Vs
closed[/b]


The
last opposition is open Vs closed. According
to this, there are two types of vowels:


The vowel is
called closed when the tongue is near to the palate. In other words, the tongue
is in a high position.


When it's
low, the vowel is called open.


To
recapitulate all that we have talked about, we can consider this diagram:


[img(312px,192px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image023.gif[/img][img(369px,226px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image024.gif[/img]


Reference:
www.linguistes.com/phonetique/phon.html





[b]5.
Comparison between the three systems [/b]


After
considering the three vocalic systems, we can establish a comparison between them:


the first
comparison is between English and French; the vowels that are shared between
these two systems are :

[table:d531 class="MsoNormalTable" style="border: medium none ; border-collapse: collapse;" border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border: 1.5pt solid black; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
The
vowel
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
French

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
English

[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style="height: 8.05pt;"] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt; height: 8.05pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/i/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt; height: 8.05pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
dit
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt; height: 8.05pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
literal
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/ε/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
belle
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
bet
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/
[img(12px,12px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.gif[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
mort
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
bore
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/u/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
choux
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
put
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/ә/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
le
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
ago
[/td] [/tr][/table]





The second
comparison is between English and Arabic ; the following vowels are shared
between the two languages :




[table:d531 class="MsoNormalTable" style="border: medium none ; border-collapse: collapse;" border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border: 1.5pt solid black; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
The
vowel
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
Arabic

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
English

[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/i/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/Bi?run/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
bit
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/i:/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/sәmi:r
/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
sea
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/u/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/bulbulun/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
to
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/u:/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/dustu:run/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
hoot
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.5pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image006.jpg[/img] :/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
/r[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg[/img] : kid /
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 153.55pt;" valign="top" width="205"]
arm
[/td] [/tr][/table]





The third
comparison can be established between Arabic and French ; these vowels are
shared between the vocalic systems of these two languages :




[table:d531 class="MsoNormalTable" style="border: medium none ; border-collapse: collapse;" border="1" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border: 1.5pt solid black; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 154.25pt;" valign="top" width="206"]
The
vowel
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 147.05pt;" valign="top" width="196"]
Arabic

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: solid solid solid none; border-color: black black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 157.7pt;" valign="top" width="210"]
French

[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 154.25pt;" valign="top" width="206"]
/i/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 147.05pt;" valign="top" width="196"]
/bintun/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 157.7pt;" valign="top" width="210"]
lit
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 154.25pt;" valign="top" width="206"]
/u/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 147.05pt;" valign="top" width="196"]
/bunnun/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 157.7pt;" valign="top" width="210"]
pour
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 154.25pt;" valign="top" width="206"]
/[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image027.jpg[/img]/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 147.05pt;" valign="top" width="196"]
/ŧ[img(14px,14px)]file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/ADMINI%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image027.jpg[/img]la ؟a/

[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 157.7pt;" valign="top" width="210"]
Ta
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 154.25pt;" valign="top" width="206"]
/a/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 147.05pt;" valign="top" width="196"]
/kataba/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 157.7pt;" valign="top" width="210"]
faculté
[/td] [/tr] [tr:d531 style=""] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 154.25pt;" valign="top" width="206"]
/e/
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 147.05pt;" valign="top" width="196"]
صelatun
[/td] [td:d531 style="border-style: none solid solid none; border-color: -moz-use-text-color black black -moz-use-text-color; border-width: medium 1.5pt 1.5pt medium; padding: 0cm 5.4pt; width: 157.7pt;" valign="top" width="210"]
ramé
[/td] [/tr][/table]
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The vocalic system
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